[…] Phase 2 construction project of the Dulles Corridor Metrorail Project, which is subject to a project work contract (PLA).  When mandated by government authorities, these agreements are highly controversial in the […] The first uses of Project Labor Agreements in the United States date back to several dam projects in the 1930s, including the Grand Coulee Dam in Washington, the Shasta Dam in California and the Hoover Dam in Nevada.  Modern PLPs developed particularly from those used in the construction sector during the Second World War, at a time when demand for skilled labour was needed, construction unions controlled 87% of the national market and public construction spending had increased significantly in a short period of time. These early PPPs focused on setting standard rates of pay and preventing work stoppages.  Cape Canaveral in the 1960s, Disney World from 1967-71 and Trans-Alaska Pipeline from 1973 to 1977.   At that time and thereafter, the union share of the construction industry declined rapidly as construction users sought open competition. In the 1980s, non-unionized contractors claimed more than 80% of construction work in a large number of companies, with some differences in different parts of the country.  An independent study conducted in 2011 by the National University System Institute for Policy Research analyzed the impact of GPs on school construction in California from 1996 to 2008.  The study analyzed 551 school construction projects and is reported to be the largest study on LTAs to date.  It found that the use of PLA increased construction costs by 13-15%, which would represent an increase of $28.90 to $32.49 per square metre if adjusted for inflation.  However, the findings of this study were vigorously challenged by Dr.
Dale Belman of Michigan State University, a long-time supporter of the use of PLA, whose previous research has been mentioned several times and who stated that the study misrepres shot its results. He wrote to the authors: “Although your study has serious statistical problems, your results are ultimately consistent with the results on LTCs and Massachusetts school construction costs. The summary of your results can be summarized as follows: if appropriate controls are included for differences between the characteristics of built schools, including the type and location of the school, construction specifications, materials used, etc., there is no statistical evidence that PLA schools are more expensive than non-PLA schools.” The authors of the study indicate in the report that they used robust regression methods to account for deviations in school materials/techniques and construction sites. Robust regression is a statistical technique used in combination with predictive models when the data set has no normal distribution or where there are significant outliers that can distort the results of a standard regression test. In a robust regression analysis, the influence of outliers is weighted downwards, allowing for more statistical relationships in the results. Non-unionized workers are required to pay non-refundable union dues and fees or join a union to work on a PLA project. Since most contractors and workers decide not to form unions when they have free choice, Big Labor has turned to politicians to suppress this election and impose union representation from top to bottom. The method used to do this is a project work contract, often referred to as a “PLA.” The AEPs, also known as the Project Stabilization Agreement, are specific to the construction industry because of their unique conditions, including the short-term nature of employment, which complicate collective bargaining after hiring, the contractor`s needs in terms of foreseeable costs and a constant supply of skilled labour and a long-standing habit of pre-hire negotiations in the sector.3 This column is provided.