Border Defense Cooperation Agreement Between India And China

Signed in Beijing on September 7, 1993, available on the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs (AMF) contract database in English, Chinese and Hindi. All three texts have the same validity. An English copy is also available in the UN Peacemaker database. According to a summary on the UN peacemakers` website, the agreement provides “a framework for border security between the parties until a final decision is taken on the delimitation of borders.” The parties agree to “minimize military forces in areas along effective control” and to “reduce military personnel” with friendly and quality relations between them. (Article 2) They also agree to implement confidence-building measures along the LAC`s control, including prior notifying “military exercises at certain levels close to the effective line of control authorized by this agreement.” (Article 2) Signed in New Delhi on January 17, 2012, available in the Chinese MFA contract base in English, Chinese and Hindi. The English text of the agreement is also contained in the Indian MEA database on Indian contracts. Both sides agreed to establish the WMCC to address important border issues related to peacekeeping and calm in the border regions of India and China. (Article 1) The WMCC will be led by an Indian MEA official at the joint secretaries level and an official at the executive level of the Chinese AMF and will be composed of diplomatic and military officials from both sides. (Article 2) The agreement is expected to improve communication between the two military personnel. The agreement is expected to include a direct telephone line between the Chinese and Indian defence ministers, but Article IV states that this is something that “both parties can also consider,” in addition to lower communication exchanges. Both sides are further strengthening their military presence along the disputed border. Signed in New Delhi on April 11, 2005, available in the Chinese AMF contract database in English, Chinese and Hindi.

The English text of the agreement is also contained in the Indian treatment base MEA. Article 1 states that “differences in the issue of borders should not affect the overall development of bilateral relations. Both sides will resolve the border issue through peaceful and friendly consultations. Articles VI, VII and VIII explicitly describe dispute resolution procedures in “areas where there is no common understanding of the effective line of control.” The aim is to question the usefulness of the 1993 agreement. At the time of the Daulat Beg Oldi incident, China never acknowledged that it had entered Indian territory. With the BDCA, the Chinese could have availed themselves of a common misunderstanding. Improved means of communication between the two parties will reduce the likelihood of accidental intrusion, but if China deliberately chooses to provoke India, it could have a stronger base. The two countries have signed a total of nine agreements, including one aimed at strengthening cooperation in rivers and cross-border transport. “China and India are two ancient civilizations. Our two peoples have wisdom and our two governments have the ability to manage our disputes along the border so that they do not harm the general interests of our bilateral relations,” the Chinese leader added. Article III explains the process by which the BDCA is conducted through meetings between border personnel, military officers and other departments and groups.